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Early detection of lung cancer

Respiratory group  Drs. Luque, N., Rodríguez, C., Tura-Ceide, O. i Orriols, R.
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About the project

Lung Cancer Study: The detection of cfDNA as a diagnostic tool in lung neoplasia.


Summary of the idea:

Lung cancer is now the most common and deadliest cancer in the world and requires a large number of complementary tests to diagnose it. The majority of cases of lung cancer diagnosed are diagnosed very late at an advanced stage of the disease, resulting in a very low survival rate. This situation generates a public health problem and has led in recent years to the development of the idea of establishing a new screening system for lung cancer.

Currently, lung cancer screening models have been developed using low-radiation computed tomography (CT) of the chest, with favourable results in terms of reduced mortality. In recent years, other less invasive tools have also emerged that allow information to be obtained in real time, such as the detection of tumour genetic material in liquid samples (liquid biopsy). Today, however, there is still insufficient evidence that has proven this tool as a screening diagnostic, although favourable results have been obtained in terms of detecting the genetic profile of the tumour or monitoring the response to treatment.

The aim of this study is to determine whether it is possible to detect tumour genetic material in the plasma of patients with stage 1 lung adenocarcinoma, as well as in other body fluids close to the lesion.  The aim is to determine which biological samples can detect tumour genetic material with a higher sensitivity, a low false negative rate and a lower invasiveness and economic cost.


Objectives, impact and proposed solution:

This study proposes the detection of ctDNA in plasma and other body fluids from a stage 1 adenocarcinoma lung nodule as a reliable, sensitive and specific method for the early diagnosis of lung cancer. The objective is to determine, using high-precision molecular techniques (NextGenerationSequencing, NGS), the possibility of detecting ctDNA in plasma in patients with stage 1 lung cancer, as well as in other body fluids close to the tumour lesion.

The aim is to find out whether the detection of ctDNApot could become a reliable, sensitive and specific tool to be incorporated into clinical practice, as well as to have an analytical validity that allows the early diagnosis of lung cancer and increase the life expectancy of these patients and of our society.

This is a translational proposal, which aims to apply the knowledge acquired to routine practice and improve the management of this pathology, with the ultimate goal of implementing a new screening system for lung cancer.